In history the Parthian Empire and Parthians were known for their
bravery. For several centuries they were the only adversarial force
against the Roman Empire. Mithraism reached its peak in this period
and many of Varzesh-e Pahlavani rituals resemble those of Mithraism.
The left image shows a Parthian soldier. We will adopt this portrait as the icon representing the traditional Iranian martial arts in the Parthian Empire.
No data is available about the status of Pahlavani tradition during Achaemenian and Sassanid Empires. Pahlavani flourished during Parthian Empire and was influenced by Mithraist rituals.
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